July 25, 2018
Child marriage below the age of 18 is a violation of basic human rights of children, especially in terms of physical, intellectual, emotional, and mental development, which adversely affects their quality of life as well as society and economy in the long run. It also deprives girls and boys of the rights to live their lives as a child and destroys their educational opportunities. It put children at risk of danger to health, including becoming the victims of domestic violence and abuses. Marriage is a significant foundation of a family institution where the spouses must be capable of bearing responsibility for themselves, family, and society. Premature marriage obstructs the child developments, causing the inability to create a perfect family institution.
Members of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), such as Algeria, Oman, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, and Turkey, have set the minimum age of marriage at 18 years of age. Recently, Indonesia has agreed to sign a decree banning child marriage. In Malaysia, the minimum age of marriage is set in both civil and Islamic laws at the age of 18 for boys and at 16 for girls without exceptions.
In Thailand, child marriage is permitted under the Civil and Commercial Code. With an exception under the Civil Procedure Code, a man who has sexually assaulted an underage girl regardless of her consent, which is a criminal offense under the section 277 of the Penal Code, can marry her with the permission of the court and fulfillment of the requirements of the law. The Islamic Law on Family and Legislation, BE 2484, and the Act on Application of Islamic Law in the Provinces of Pattani, Narathiwat, Yala and Satun, BE 2489, do not prescribe the minimum age of marriage but leave it upon the discretion of the court, which has created a legal loophole where child marriage is legitimized based on local norms and customary practices in several cases, all of which are the violation of the Child Protection Act, BE 2546.
In the case of a 41-year-old Malaysian man marrying an 11-year-old girl from Narathiwat, Thailand, claiming the marriage was performed in accordance with the Islamic principles, the governmental and non-governmental agencies, including religious bodies in Malaysia and Thailand, have not been negligent but hastened to coordinate efforts to protect the child by convening a meeting on July 11, 2018 in Pattani. The meeting with the Central Islamic Council of Pattani and Narathiwat were held respectively. The Central Islamic Council of Narathiwat has clarified the marriage was wrong as the marriage document was falsified and the Central Islamic Council of Narathiwat was falsely claimed as the authorizing body to endorse the marriage. In addition, the Imam (Muslim community leader) who performed the marriage has been put on probation; hence he is unauthorized to perform the marriage for anyone. Currently, the imam has been punished by the Central Islamic Council of Narathiwat. The marriage is, therefore, invalid and nullified. Nonetheless, the aforementioned incident indicates a gap that enables the sexual exploitation of children under 18.
Child marriage in the southern frontier provinces of Thailand continues to be utilized as a tool to deal with premarital pregnancy and child abuses such as rape. Forced marriage has become the only way to avoid shame, especially from having an illegitimate child, in order to legalize the relationship. Marriage to escape poverty is another major reason for child marriage. Therefore, the efficient and sustainable elimination and prevention of child marriage require an attitude and behavioral change to create a new social norm. Religious and community organizations are required to take responsibility for the empowerment of the community through the Zakat Fund as a powerful tool to eliminate disparities and poverty in the community. This effort should be implemented alongside the amendment and enforcement of the law by upholding the best interest of the child. To fulfill the obligations to The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the CEDAW committee has given the recommendation to Thailand to amend the Criminal Code Section 277 by setting the nationwide minimum age of marriage at 18 and there must be the measures to eliminate child marriage and/or forced marriage (paragraph 49 (a) CEDAW / C / THA / CO6-7)
Today’s children are the future of tomorrow. All children have the rights to thrive for their hopes and dreams. To achieve their fullest potentials, they should learn and have an access to education, not to get married before the age of 18. Thus, to protect the 11-year-old girl and prevent exploitation, sexual abuses, and for the long-term prevention of exploitation of children, child abuse and violation of the rights of the child from child marriage, the undersigned individuals and organizations of this open letter urge the concerned parties to take the following actions:
- 1. The provincial governor of Narathiwat province, as the chairman of the Provincial Child Protection Committee, with direct reasonability under the Child Protection Act, BE 2546, is urged resort to the legal mechanisms and lodge a police report as to activate the relevant authorities to investigate the evidence of sexual assault and exploitation against the child. This would lead to the rescue and protection of the child and enable her access to basic rights, especially education. This includes litigation against the offender to establish future norms and procedures.
- 2. The Central Islamic Council of Narathiwat is urged to make a public clarity on the to the marriage of 41-year-old Malaysian man and 11-year-old Thai girl in order to clarify unlawful conduct of Nikah (marriage ceremony) and forgery of the official documents, which have led to the exploitation and the violation of the rights of the child. That such an action has also damaged the reputation of the Central Islamic Council of Narathiwat province.
- 3. The Central Islamic Council of Thailand and the Provincial Central Islamic Councils are urged to take strict measures to protect the rights of children and women by conducting a clear and careful investigation of women’s willingness to marry and ensure no women are forced in marriage. The measures must be urgently established to prevent the premature marriage of women under the age of 18. An example can be seen from an action taken by the Central Islamic Council of Pattani Province, under whom, the child marriage below 18 years of age is prohibited based on strict observation of Child Protection Act, BE 2546. Men wishing to marry more than one wife must be scrutinized to assess their behavior, economic ability and capacity to ensure genuine justice based on Islamic principle, which includes the emotional and mental justice for the prior wives/wife.
- 4. The government is urged to coordinate with all sectors, especially the Sheikhul Islam Office of Thailand and Central Islamic Council of Thailand to ensure the verdicts and laws pertaining to marriage and child protection are in compliance to Islamic principles as well as the international instruments and conventions, to which the Thai government has given the commitment and is obliged to fulfill such as the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), especially in preventing child marriage and forced marriage. The Thai government must seek cooperation with the Malaysian government to improve the laws and ensure their compatibility with the aim to prevent the use of legal loopholes between the two countries for the exploitation of children including sexual abuse against children and women.
The Undersigned Organizations and Individuals
Hearty Support Group (Duay Jai)
Women’s Four-region Network (Southern Region)
The Network of Civic Women for Peace (Civic Women)
Women’s Network to End Violence and Seek for Peace in the Three Southern Provinces
Asian Muslim Action Network (AMAN)
Research and Campaign Network for Women
Songkhla Public Health Coverage Network (Public Benefit Organization)
Dr. Vacharuthia Boonthinan, Institute of Human Rights and Peace Studies, Mahidol University
Asian Resource Foundation
Cross Cultural Foundation
Foundation for Women
Foundation for Women and Children Protection
Friends of Women Foundation
Foundation for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights
Foundation for Peace and Culture
Asian Culture of Peace Foundation
Center of Excellence on Women and Social Security
Muslim Women Protection Center, Laem Pho District
Women and Family Learning Center, Taluu District, Pattani
International Institute of Peace and Development Studies
Children and Youth Association for Southern Border Peace (LukRiang Group)
Women’s Association for Peace
FahSai Association for the Promotionof Youth Welfare in the South
The Coordination Center of Informal Labor Workers of Thailand
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nongyao Nawarat, Faculty of Social Sciences Chiang Mai University
Suchart Setthamaliness, Vice Chairman of Central Islamic Council of Chiang Mai
Rosenun Chesof, University of Malaya
Sitimuna Ibrahim Payordueramae